Planning in Malaysia is an interactive process between EPU and stakeholders, including ministries and agencies, state governments, academics, private sector and non-governmental organizations. In addition, inputs from international agencies are also taken into account. The determination of macro and sectoral targets will be discussed and agreed at the Inter-Agency Planning Group (IAPG) meeting whereby the EPU is a secretariat. The socio-economic development planning process is implemented through the "top down" and "bottom up" approaches that aimed at ensuring that national policies and strategies are realised through resource optimisation and balanced development in various aspects. Therefore, it can be implemented and fully integrated with core of national development
Parliament is the highest level in national development planning. Before a plan was tabled in Parliament, the draft plan was first discussed at the Cabinet Committee and the Prime Minister's Special Committee level. Meanwhile, the National Development Planning Committee (NDPC) is the highest governing body of government officials in the formulation and coordination of policies chaired by the Chief Secretary to the Government (KSN). The proposed draft plan and policies at the NDPC level will be presented to the National Development Council chaired by YAB Prime Minister before being brought for consideration by the Cabinet.
In terms of implementation and monitoring mechanisms, the Implementation Coordination Unit, under the Prime Minister's Department (ICU, JPM) has been tasked to monitor the achievement of government’s policies and programs as well as projects at the ministry and agency level. Directive No.1, 2018: Implementation Coordination Machinery is the power source to ensure coordination mechanisms and monitoring of the implementation of government programs and development projects at the Federal, state and district levels are in orderly manner. The implementation evaluation reports at each level will be presented periodically for each quarter to the National Action Working Committee chaired by the KSN before being brought to the National Action Council which is the highest level in the governance of national development monitoring.
The development and monitoring planning process and mechanism of the national socio-economic development policy can be explained as in the figure below: